In addition to the size and shape of the alkyl group, the difference in the properties of the emulsifier is mainly related to the difference of the hydrophilic group, and the change of the hydrophilic group is much larger than that of the hydrophobic group. Therefore, the classification of the emulsifier is generally divided by the structure of the hydrophilic group, that is, the type of the ion.
1. Ionic emulsifier: when the emulsifier dissolves in water, it is called ionic emulsifier, which can dissociate into ion. If the emulsifier is dissolved in water, it dissociates into a small cation and a larger anionic group including the alkyl group, and acts as anionic group, called anionic emulsifier, if emulsified. After the solution is dissolved in water, the dissociation is a small anion and a larger cationic group, and the function is the cationic group. This emulsifier is called a cationic emulsifier. The amphoteric emulsifier is also composed of the non polar part of the oil pro and the polar part of the hydrophilic group, and the special part of the hydrophilic polarity consists of both the anions and the cations.
In the ionic emulsifier industry, anionic emulsifier is the most successful one with the largest yield, the largest variety and the most successful industrialization. Anionic emulsifiers, sodium stearoyl lactylate and Calcium stearoyl lactylate are commonly used in food industry.
2. non ionic emulsifier: non ionic emulsifier is not ionized in water, when water is dissolved in water, hydrophobic and hydrophobic groups play an oil and hydrophilic role on the same molecule. It is because the non ionic emulsifier does not ionize in the water and does not form the ion. It makes the nonionic emulsifier have better performance in some ways than the ionic emulsifier.
The above classification is carried out in accordance with the structural characteristics of emulsifiers. In actual production, it is also classified according to the hydrophile and relative strength of the emulsifier, and the (O/W) emulsifier and the oil-based emulsifier mouth generally say that the hydrophilic emulsifier is mainly formed by water oil (0, /w) emulsion, and the main oil-based emulsifier is the oil water (w/o) emulsion. But it should be pointed out that when emulsifier is used to prepare emulsion, it is not only influenced by the emulsifier itself, but also influenced by the material composition, pH value and temperature 8 degrees in the system. The commonly used products are glyceryl monostearate, diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono-diglycerol and so on.